Monday, March 4, 2024

Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution *1

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What is citric acid and potassium citrate?

Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution. Citrate is a compound that is important for cell energy levels and metabolism. It helps control catabolic pathways through negative feedback inhibition of key regulatory enzymes in glycolysis and the TCA cycle, such as phosphofructokinase 1 and 2. Citric acid also reduces inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipogenesis. In addition, hydroxycitrate (HCA) is capable of inhibiting ATP-dependent citrate lyse (ACLY), which cleaves citrate to oxaloacetate and AcCoA [20,51]. It has been shown to alter calcium oxalate excretion in rats with kidney stones by preventing their formation recalcitrant to potassium citrate [52,53].[1]

Potassium citrate is a common ingredient in oral solution to treat urinary tract infections and urolithiasis. It works by increasing the amount of urine in the body and decreasing the levels of uric acid and calcium in the blood.[2]

Citric acid and potassium citrate side effects

Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution
Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution

Potassium is a mineral that is important for normal function of the body. It helps the body to maintain balance. If you don’t have enough potassium in your body, you may feel tired or weak, have trouble with bowel movements and muscle cramps, have an irregular heartbeat and more. This medicine can help you get more potassium in your body. It is important to take this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. You should not take this medicine if you are allergic to potassium or citric acid. If you experience any side effects while taking this medication, stop using it and call your doctor immediately.[3]

Citric Acid Oral Solution

Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution
Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution

Citric acid is a common metabolite of plants and animals and is a key intermediate in the Krebs cycle.

Inhalation of citric acid induced cough in humans and a reduction in airway diameter in spontaneously breathing guinea pigs. The mechanism is thought to be related to the irritation of the larynx and trachea.[4]

What is this medication?

Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution
Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution

Citric acid is a well-rounded compound that shows up in just about everything from soaps and detergents to perfumes and colognes. Despite its myriad uses, citric acid is generally considered to be a moderately soluble and relatively non-toxic organic acid.[5] A few of the compounds are able to stand up to a good shake and will remain intact in solution, such as citric acid dihydrate (watermelon juice), hexylresorcinol (citrus liqueur) and isopropyl citrate, but the best bets tend to be the acetylated varieties like hydroxytoluene (sunscreen) and ethyl methyl ketone, which are both soluble in water and relatively unperceivable in most aqueous solutions.[6]

How should I use this medication?

To prevent kidney stones, gout, or metabolic acidosis, take this medication as directed by your doctor. It is usually taken in liquid form, with a large amount of water, after each meal. It is also used to treat or prevent swelling (edema) or chronic diarrhea (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease).

Before taking this medicine, tell your doctor if you have kidney failure, Addison’s disease, severe heart damage from a prior heart attack, or high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia). Also, tell your doctor if you are severely dehydrated or have heat cramps.[7]

This drug may cause serious side effects, such as muscle twitching or cramps, weakness, nausea and vomiting, fast or shallow breathing, and a fast heart rate. It can also cause a dangerous electrolyte imbalance or aluminum toxicity in some people. Avoid antacids with aluminum or sodium, such as household baking soda, as they can interact with this medication.

This medication should not be given to babies or children. It may pass into breast milk and can harm a nursing baby.[8]

What if I miss a dose?

Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution
Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Oral Solution

If you miss a dose, be sure to try to remember to take it as soon as possible. It is also a good idea to double check your medication list. If you don’t have a list, ask your pharmacist for one. You may be surprised to find out just how many things you are missing from your daily routine.

If all else fails, you may need to see your doctor right away. Your doctor will be able to help you figure out what caused your symptoms and what your treatment plan should look like.[9]

The most important thing is to be honest with your doctor about your condition and current medications. This will help him or her prescribe the right medicine for you. You may need to see your healthcare provider more than once a week to monitor your progress.

The best way to get the most out of your new medication is to stick to your doctor’s recommended dose and schedule. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have any other medical conditions, are taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medications, or have any allergies.[10]

What may interact with this medication?

Citric acid, its salts, and alkyl citrate esters are b-hydroxy acids that differ from glycolic acid, lactic acid, and other AHAs in that they have 3 carboxylic acid functional groups instead of 1. As such, these products can be used in formulae that contain a broad range of AHAs.[11]

As a hydroxyl acid, citric acid is well absorbed and is primarily metabolized by the liver.[12] It is a nontoxic substance, with no significant adverse effects on the reproductive or developmental systems of rats, rabbits, or dogs. In a study comparing the effects of aluminum citrate (80 mmol/L) and distearyl citrate ester mixtures in Sprague-Dawley rats, 80 mmol/L aluminum citrate was not maternally or embryotoxic while dietary administration of up to 9.5% of a distearyl citrate ester mixture did not have any fetal, maternal, or developmental toxicities.[13]

In irritation studies, 4% and 2.5% citric acid were nonirritating to guinea pigs and rabbits and 10% citric acid produced mild erythema and edema that subsided with time in rabbits. Triethyl citrate was not an irritant to rabbits at 30% concentration and undiluted trioctyldodecyl citrate applied neat was nonirritating to rabbit eyes.[14]

As a tricarboxylic acid, citric acid has 3 carboxylic acid functional groups and is triprotic in nature, making it a prime buffer component. The octanol/water partition coefficient for citric acid is estimated to be around 1, but the octanol/water ratios for citrate alkyl esters vary depending on the length of the alkyl chain and degree of substitution, with some esters more hydrophilic than others. As a result, the CIR Panel concluded that citric acid and its inorganic citrate salts and alkyl citrate esters are safe for cosmetic use.[15]

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